The requiem for jobs and careers as the American middle class has known them has already
sounded. Some purveyors of career advice claim that "jobs" are increasingly obsolete; instead,
people will perform tasks on a project-by-project basis under short-term contracts. They liken
workers to free agents in professional sports. Or they invoke Hollywood to describe future
teams assembled for particular ventures that will readily move on to the next one, carrying their
security with them via their reputations and network of contacts.
Hype aside, there is a grain of truth in these images. Today's good jobs are different from
memory and nostalgia, as I found recently in a national study of local challenges in the global
economy. The software and related knowledge industries are inventing a new kind of career with
profound implications for the way we work and live. As companies in these industries must
relentless change, so too must their employees adapt to change in their own work lives. Instead
counting on long-term employment with a single firm, they increasingly depend on their
employability by many firms. The shift from employment security to employability security
fundamental change in what people should expect from their employers--and how employers
should think about their interests and obligations. To be sure, many other industries are not as
volatile or growing as rapidly as the software and other technology industries, and not every job
follow the same pattern. But software holds important lessons for other industries undergoing
change and may presage the expanding labor markets of the future.
THE SCOPE OF CHANGE
My collaborators and I surveyed 2,655 companies of all sizes and types in five metropolitan
interviewed in depth leaders of nearly 100 businesses and community organizations, and ran
40 2-to-3-hour focus groups with more than 300 workers in diverse companies discussing their
reactions to workplace change. Everywhere we looked, the forces for change were similar:
intensified competition, use of new technology, and pressures for lower cost, higher quality, and
greater speed. Larger firms were consolidating their operations and their supply relationships on
national and even global basis, with grave implications for local purchasing and employment.
Smaller ones were seeking partners and joining networks to tap new international markets--or
simply to survive. And a majority of all companies reported embracing a new organizational
that involves fewer layers, more use of problem-solving teams, and greater outsourcing--that is,
more reliance on outside suppliers for what used to be internal services.
In Boston and Seattle, the two areas in the survey with the highest concentration of
companies with high-wage jobs, change was the most marked, and the extent especially
the larger the organization. Unsurprisingly, the most common changes involved closer
with customers and accelerated product development (characteristic of almost 65 percent of
companies); reorganization of work processes was next, underway in 46 percent of firms. Nearly
managers at larger companies reported adding information systems to improve efficiency.
Almost a third of responding companies (31.7 percent) had changed their relationships
suppliers, asking vendors to perform to higher standards and provide more services as companies
outsourced them. For a group of 42 larger Boston companies interviewed, the most commonly
outsourced activities were low-value-added services such as cafeteria, payroll, cleaning services,
building and equipment maintenance, mailroom, security, travel, public relations, child care,
training, technical writing, and printing. In addition, eight of those companies used so many
temporary workers that they had created their own in-house temp pools.
The remaining workforce faced heavier workloads, greater work pressure, and escalating
requirements (computers, numeracy, problem-solving skills, knowledge of other functions).
companies were expecting workers to handle more responsibilities; 30 percent of those in the
reported they had already reduced supervision and created problem-solving teams, and 44
said they were planning to do so. Demands for greater skill were found across industries. Pattern
cutters, telephone operators, meter readers, hamburger flippers, and taxi dispatchers were joining
factory workers in being expected to use computers. Merlin Metalwork's 30 workers
titanium bicycles used computers to schedule their work and track performance, just as thousands
of operators in Gillette's South Boston plant did.
As a consequence of organizational change, workers in focus groups express great
about the future. "I don't believe jobs are secure anymore," a limousine dispatcher said. "People
remote locations make decisions that drop the bottom out of the whole job market. That's true no
matter what job you have. Someone somewhere else can kill it." When asked what they will be
doing in three to five years, most people said they could not think beyond today.
Workers often attribute insecurity to corporate downsizing and failing businesses. But
uncertainty about jobs stems from changing job requirements, and change is associated with
successful companies, not failing ones. The extent of workplace change was positively correlated
with both sales growth and international market expansion in my survey. Greater use of
workers--that is, temps, part-timers, independent contractors--prevails even in companies
employment growth in emerging technology fields. In fact, such companies are especially reliant
contingent employees. A related survey by Coopers & Lybrand of 392 companies identified
media as the fastest-growing U.S. businesses found that 65 percent of them outsourced, and those
percent had revenues that were 22 percent greater than the others.
And now we come back to the Hollywood and professional-sports model of careers.
employment security is declining, but leaders of the knowledge industries say they promise
employability security. Employability security is based on a person's accumulation of human and
social capital--skills, reputation, and connections--which can be invested in new opportunities
arise inside and outside the employee's current organization. No matter what changes take place,
theory runs, workers who continually improve their skills and can make their abilities known
through a network of firms are in a better position to find employment--with the current
with another one, or on their own.
Is employability security just a theory? It seems like a pipe dream to people with obsolete skills
declining or slow-growing industries, who face greater risks without corresponding
But to knowledge workers in growth industries, it represents reality.
The modern incarnation of this labor market has its roots in high-technology areas such as
Valley and Boston's Route 128. In Silicon Valley, as Annalee Saxenian shows in her book
Advantage, professionals think of themselves as employed by the industry, with careers that
extend across many organizations. Changing employers is so common that professionals may
identify their interests more with the project and the industry than with the particular firm where
they happen to be. Such regional networks now exist in many different industries across the
For example, according to UCLA management professor William Ouchi, now chief of staff for
Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, 4,500 multimedia companies in Los Angeles act as a network
overlapping projects in which people and ideas move from node to node.
The software industry represents a fully developed example of the new career model, offering
potential solutions to the problems of contingent jobs. It is important because of its centrality to
information economy; computer programming is the fastest-growing large occupational category.
Software production, a growth industry, spans traditional industrial categories: classified with
service industries, yet manufacturing packaged products. Nationwide, the industry employs about
2.5 million people. In Massachusetts alone there are over 1,800 software companies employing
than 62,000 people, with another 33,000 working in software units of computer hardware
companies and a comparable number in software-based telecommunications network equipment
companies. Almost a third of those employed in software do what can be broadly described as
To respond to rapid change and cutthroat competition, software companies need constant
innovation, and that means constant workplace flux. "This is war, make no mistake about it," one
executive observes. So the future of any job is highly uncertain. ISI Systems, which says it was
virtual company before anyone ever used the word," produces insurance-processing software. In
chain typical in knowledge industries, large insurers contract with ISI to do claims processing,
ISI in turn outsources its data center. Rather than adding permanent staff, ISI prefers to use
"consultants" (read temps) for six or nine months at a time when business builds up, to avoid
to lay off staff during slower periods.
At Powersoft, which manufactures client-server programming tools, development and
staffers recognize that the company's success depends on constant improvement, even if that
that "every three days we're changing the rules." This turbulent environment creates cross-cutting
pressures--at one time, for example, layoffs of people without transferable skills in a unit shutting
down and a hectic search for people to build new development operations. "I was firing people in
the morning and hiring people in the afternoon," recalls Traci Weaver, who heads human
To maintain flexibility, Powersoft has an in-house temporary employment department,
Temps, for about half the temp pool the company uses. This gives Powersoft control over quality
and fosters longer-term relationships with contingent workers. During a recent new product
for example, 20 temps worked for a month entering data, taking orders, and sending out invoices.
Some eventually got regular jobs.
Despite great uncertainty, people at Powersoft sound eerily like manuals for the new
career, though this is not a young or inexperienced crowd following the latest hip career cliche.
average age is 35, and everyone we met had worked for other companies, giving them a reference
point for their reactions to Powersoft. They talk about "earning the right to come back" because
"no one is owed a job; sorry, pal." They report that the challenge of a demanding technology
provides "unparalleled opportunities to grow within myself." They applaud each other's
joking about the long hours.
For example, when a senior manager in one of my focus groups referred to an "ethic that
and above 8-to-5," a colleague quipped, "Only a half-day?" The first replied, "That's 8 p.m. to 5
p.m." Another chimed in, "This is like a poker game. I'll see you your hours and raise you." Then
fourth made a serious point: "In this environment, second best just doesn't cut it. We all
each other. The long hours aren't because we want to outshine everybody; we want to keep up
Experience has taught people not to count on the company but on their ability to move.
that they want to be gypsies; most want to settle down. "It's an exciting environment, which
you very attached to the company," a professional said. "You spend so many hours that it's hard
cut those roots and move on." But they will move if they have to. "I was at Digital when it was a
place; I was at Prime when it was a prime place to work," another employee recalled. "Both
got out before it was fashionable. I wouldn't hesitate to jump again if I see lifeboats being
Powersoft's people agree that the next years are highly uncertain, but they imagine a
possibilities with no ceilings or barriers. One group of professionals bantered about who would
whose job and who would be president someday. Workers further down the Powersoft pecking
order can also dream about a future doing something different that uses the learning in which
are investing; for example, the frontline technical support staffer who thinks he'll be in a better
because he's also a part-time instructor at a local college, or the clerical worker who wants to go
any Powersoft overseas office. They say that it is their own choice whether to stay or leave.
said they hope they want to be at Powersoft in the future.
PRODUCING EMPLOYABILITY SECURITY
Employability security in the software industry is built around four factors. These are
characteristic of successful high-technology firms and increasingly important for competitiveness
all high-wage industries.
Innovation for world markets. Many software companies share a goal of
innovation on a world
scale. Ever-shorter lead times in software mean that only the best survive; the competitive edge
comes from setting world standards to leapfrog competitors with products that cross borders
"Technology is a global business," one CEO said. "We must get critical mass around the world
faster and faster to become a standard. Competitive leads last a very short time. The minute you
poke your head out in the leadership position, everybody is after you." For this reason,
Lightbridge's incentive compensation plan for the entire staff includes bonuses for innovation as
well as customer satisfaction and system performance.
Very new and very small companies are born global. The MathWorks, a company with
employees, was international in scope from its founding in 1984. An early user of the Internet to
make worldwide connections, The MathWorks developed some of its products through
international collaborations. Product features and extensions were developed by independent
professionals in Sweden, France, and South Africa.
International reach is now a necessity even to sell products at home. Powersoft, for
must support corporate customers wherever they are. Powersoft began selling overseas as soon as
first major product was ready in 1990; by 1994, it had distribution joint ventures in 44 countries.
World markets also provide a large customer base and a hedge against business cycles at home.
meeting or setting world standards means that people will be highly desirable to other
Product or project success is more important than company success. One experienced software
gypsy, now a manager at a $50 million venture, reported, "The thing I always tell everybody is
while we want our company to succeed, more importantly, we want the platform that we're
on to succeed. So if this company crashes and burns, we can go somewhere else and leverage
we did here." In short, workers in software want to make sure that their knowledge is
An emphasis on learning. Rapid technological change poses a challenge: how to
ensure that new
knowledge constantly enters the organization and that people have skills for both today's and
tomorrow's work. Without new knowledge, software companies fall behind. Unless they are
continually encouraged to learn, employees become obsolete with each new technological wave.
ISI marketing manager reported that customers "are not buying today's system, they're buying the
system as it goes into the future. So therefore what we really offer is what's in the brains of the
people you see wandering around this building."
Software executives recognize these imperatives. Lightbridge, founded by Pam Reeve in
now employing 430 people, includes the desire to be a "learning organization" as one of the
"organizational first principles" in its mission statement. Managers set goals for education, and
company offers abundant courses in project management, time management, and software
development techniques as well as featuring a large library, unusual in such a small company.
culture encourages dissemination of new information within the firm. Like others in the industry,
Lightbridge has a full tuition-reimbursement program. Performance reviews ask employees to
specify what they plan to do to expand their abilities.
Similar practices characterize Lau Technologies, a $50 million custom electronic systems
manufacturer founded by Joanna Lau when she and other employees bought out their unit of a
stagnating defense contractor. Twenty-one of the 209 employees own the company, and 48
participate in a profit-sharing pool. Lau's associates feel their advancement depends on their own
commitment to improving their skills and using them. Employees receive seven days of total
management training, extensive technical training in electronics and computers, and full tuition
reimbursement for outside courses. They are cross-trained to perform multiple tasks, and
conduct an annual training analysis of each employee and develop customized programs based
employee preference. And there is "buddy" training, in which a master trainer in each field trains
others. Slow periods between contracts are used for worker training. Spending money on training
assuages employee fears; it is a sign that Lau expects continuing work.
Company self-interest in "having the latest technologies within our grasp," as an
executive put it,
merges with individual interest in having marketable skills. Companies want software workers to
become industry experts who can support customers that use other application software;
Hewlett-Packard ads tout its staff's ability to work on any other company's equipment.
knowledge may be less important to job success than broad knowledge of many companies'
Flexibility and empowerment: reward for initiative. Often no more than
and empowerment take on meaning in software companies where people feel they have some
control. ISI has long encouraged flexible hours. Managers can authorize any schedule and do so
people whose knowledge is valuable--for example, having a new mother work two days a week,
giving a PC to a woman moving from Massachusetts to North Carolina with her husband so she
remain full-time on the ISI payroll. At Powersoft, employees can design their own three-day,
four-day, or five-day altered-schedule work weeks and can work from home, linked through
company-supplied computers, electronic mail, and fax machines. Most human resource staff
work at home at
least half the time, including a full-time recruiter who spends evenings talking with prospective
after their work hours.
Rewarding entrepreneurial initiative helps both employer and employee. New ideas help
company improve and help the person gain a reputation, rise to leadership, and invent new
opportunities. FasTech Integration, a producer of networking software, encourages employees to
identify new projects; if a project is accepted, the employee, regardless of formal level, can
the project manager--in FasTech jargon, the "DRI" or "designated responsible individual." In the
last year, almost a third of its 125 employees took on such opportunities.
Company and industry networking. In software, as in other high-tech fields,
change produces complex relationships among organizations. Development projects spill across
organizational lines, and engineers and managers find their careers enmeshed in more than one
A job for one company may be managed by another; training may be done by still another
organization; and people working in several organizations may assess an employee's
partnerships and project teams change, people become acquainted with organizations outside
own. Sociologists Arthur Stinchcombe and Carol Heimer argue that such organizational
interdependencies improve workers' chances to find future jobs.
Numerous ties with development partners, marketing allies, and industry collaborators not
improve the products of software companies; they also allow small start-ups to recruit or tap
sophisticated talent. Echoing a common theme, Joe Alsop, the CEO of Progress Software,
the company's rapid growth to alliances. Outstanding people were willing to take a risk with a
start-up because of the connections they would get with leading companies in the industry.
FasTech Integration's development partnerships and marketing relationships have been critical to
its success. With 125 people, the company is far from a giant, but its reach extends to tens of
thousands of people working in its interest at the biggest firms in computing as well as at dozens
"ISVs"--independent software vendors. External collaboration is widespread in software because
products are more appealing when they work easily with programs from other companies, and
company's reach is greater when it can tap into many distribution and support networks. No one
single company, not even Microsoft, can provide users with all the services and applications they
Powersoft, for example, has 200 partnerships with complementary companies to integrate
PowerBuilder tool with other programs. Big names in computing--IBM, Digital, Novell,
Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, Oracle, and Knowledgware--are partners as well as competitors. For
marketing, Powersoft has partnerships with almost 100 resellers affectionately known as "power
channels"--consultants, systems integrators, and project developers in the client-server industry,
which together account for 55 percent of its North American sales. Dun and Bradstreet alone has
600 developers working on PowerBuilder applications.
The industry's formal associations are another source of local connection-making and job
In 1985 the Massachusetts Computer Software Council was formed by two entrepreneurs to
promote the industry domestically and internationally. Today the Software Council runs 27
meetings a year for its 300 companies on international opportunities, legal issues, sales and
marketing strategies, or CEO-to-CEO advice; it also has its own rock band.
The Software Council serves as a job broker as well as industry booster. Its fellowship program
a public-private partnership with MassJobs to retrain seasoned professionals who have been laid
from hardware, defense, or electronics companies and place them in five-month work
in software companies. Resumes and testimonials about each candidate are then circulated
throughout the network. For example, Zena Thomas, former project manager and systems analyst
Wang Laboratories, took an assignment as quality assurance consultant for Relational
Boston; another Wang veteran, Sandra Hayes, created a company identity and marketing
Many companies report that they take advantage of local industry networks to identify
people and ideas through contact and conversation among companies, facilitated by the Software
Council and led by CEOs. "I am Powersoft's chief schmoozer," Powersoft's founder and CEO
Mitchell Kertzman says. So much industry "schmoozing" takes place that some software
complain it eats into their private lives. But the result is that people employed in software see
career routes extending throughout the industry. Employability security derives from
outside the company issuing the paycheck as well as from performance within it, and it is a
industry organization as well as personal enterprise.
LESSONS FROM SOFTWARE
This version of the future is alive and reasonably well in software, telecommunications
technology, multimedia, biotechnology, and health technologies--wherever brains power the
enterprise and workers think of themselves not as employees but as professionals temporarily
to a particular company and someday entrepreneurs founding their own. Blurring of traditional
distinctions might characterize many jobs and careers of the future. People might be workers one
day, perform management tasks the next, and run their own businesses on the side.
But this model comes with limits. It is not surprising that people feel good in software
can joke about contingent careers because the jobs exist. The industry is growing rapidly, and
American companies dominate world markets. The industry doesn't depend on many fixed
people and their ideas are primary. The need to attract those with the latest knowledge makes it
for talented professionals to feel there is always another opportunity if the current job doesn't pan
out. Playing with computers is a young person's game, and the young are often convinced the
will take care of itself; Apple reached a billion dollars in sales before it had a pension plan.
Furthermore, the boom in software arose as hardware manufacturers hit hard times; exiles from
moribund computer companies are grateful for a job and not picky about whether that job leads
secure career or whether they will be on the street again at age 55. Hollywood-type careers work
until one is a fading star.
The industry is still in an entrepreneurial phase characterized by easy entry and a large
business start-ups, many still invisible to the public. Marketing channels are relatively open; even
teenage son has started a software development business and sells programs through the Internet.
But what happens when the industry matures and consolidates? Sybase's acquisition of Powersoft
early in 1995 for $904 million in stock, one of the industry's largest deals to date, was dwarfed
few months later by IBM's $3 billion acquisition of Lotus. Will loose networks be replaced by
bureaucracies? What will this do to the primacy of people? Unlike major-league ballplayers and
movie stars--whose work lives have become metaphors for the new career model--software talent
not represented by unions or agents. People might be in a weak bargaining position with giant
companies, and even more vulnerable when they are not engineers and programmers but
telemarketers or production workers that shrink-wrap software packages.
Yet, as contingent employment spreads, the software industry offers useful ideas for labor
policy even in older industries. More companies can be encouraged to emulate practices of
companies that are, after all, just reflections of progressive human resource policies long
characteristic of older high-tech success stories such as Hewlett-Packard. At many firms,
there is much more talk than action; not enough reach the Hewlett-Packard standard. One
aerospace company that benchmarked its training hours against Hewlett-Packard, Motorola, and
others known for education found that it had offered less than half of what the progressive firms
and that its training had been pegged more to job changes than to continuous learning. Many
companies limit training to classrooms at infrequent intervals, instead of using the full panoply of
on-the-job learning practices of Lau Technologies or the rapid communication of new ideas via
e-mail and frequent workplace meetings common in software companies. To convert "training"
(doing something to the person) into "learning" (a constant reaching out for new knowledge)
requires embedding it in the workplace.
To serve the workforce beyond a few progressive high-tech firms, public policy needs to
encourage continuous upgrading of skills. Training is in the interest of the firm--but not just the
firm. Because of the increased mobility of workers among companies, training is a general
for an industry and region. The divergence between the interests of individual firms and society's
broader interest in a high-skill workforce is a classic example of the rationale for public action.
more we rely on employability security rather than long-term employment by a single firm, the
important such social support for training and education become.
National and regional policy should also encourage (although not directly finance) the
development of networks of collaboration that help workers as well as firms. Local
such as the Peer Learning Network in Nashville, help companies offer training, compare best
practices, share success stories, and provide internships across the network. Civic or industry
associations such as Chambers of Commerce can help form the networks, with local universities
the community supplying educational programs. The primary movers here should be companies
local industry associations that permit a flow of people and ideas. Companies can view their
of suppliers, customers, and venture partners as a resource for learning, personnel exchanges, or
placements. For example, a prominent large manufacturer that works with suppliers as partners
now started to ask some of them to take on workers temporarily as an alternative to layoffs.
for internal and external entrepreneurship--new ventures and spin-off businesses around
ideas that the established company cannot use--can help people create their own opportunities for
The software model encourages employers and employees alike to think globally. In every
know, people now recognize that they have to think more globally, innovating to world
Even the U.S. apparel industry is enjoying something of a comeback after being driven out of
business by low-wage Asian and Caribbean competitors. Smaller niche apparel companies in the
U.S. now flourish through innovation, global thinking, sophisticated applications of technology,
very close relations to a few large customers for whom they promise quick turnaround and
customized products manufactured to very high-quality standards. When companies grow
their home market and set world standards, local workers can benefit--like the Nynex telephone
installer who told me that the thing he likes best about the company is its operations in England,
because he would be sent there but because he felt his future is more secure in a company
expanding internationally. While some workers blame the global economy for workplace
and fight against it, software professionals believe that their employability is enhanced by the
strength of their company--and of the American software industry--in global markets.
Software and its sister knowledge industries should show us, above all, that employability is not
just a matter of individual skills and education. It also rests on institutional factors, especially on
industries that are highly organized and networked, to permit a flow of people across
Training alone does not produce it, nor can individuals be expected to innovate their own way
good jobs unless companies have built their own network of collaborations and created an
environment that rewards initiative.
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