Roger Bybee

Roger Bybee, based in Milwaukee, has written on labor and economic issues for the past 36 years, including 14 years as editor of The Racine Labor weekly. Bybee's work has been included in several anthologies, and he teaches Labor Studies as the University of Illinois.

Recent Articles

Wisconsin Progressive Giant Ed Garvey’s Vital Message

When Wisconsin progressive Ed Garvey succumbed to a long illness February 22 at age 76, Senator Bernie Sanders hailed him as “one of the smartest, funniest, and most decent people I have ever known.”

It was a fitting tribute to the humanity of Garvey, whose passion for economic democracy and social justice had made him deeply beloved in his home state.

That Sanders delivered it was also fitting. In both electoral and issue campaigns, Garvey had pioneered a sharp-edged message about mounting inequality and shrinking democratic space that had cultivated the ground for Sanders’s Wisconsin primary win. Garvey spoke directly to Wisconsin’s unusually harsh inequities, and job losses caused by globalization. Sanders sounded similar populist themes in his  57–43 percent primary victory over Hillary Clinton, in which he carried 71 of 72 counties. Clinton went on to lose the state on Election Day, by just 23,000 votes.

Garvey blended generosity of spirit with a remarkable strategic audacity and fearlessness, overcoming seemingly insuperable odds in countless battles. Above all, Garvey was a masterful communicator—an old-fashioned, spellbinding orator and a sophisticated modern-media strategist who saw the importance of teaching working people how to speak about their pain and aspirations to the broadest possible audiences.  

Having worked alongside Garvey for more than three decades, I regard the annual “Fighting Bob” festival as the capstone of Garvey’s lifelong efforts to build working people’s capacity to develop and deliver a powerful diagnosis of society’s ills, and to offer a compelling alternative vision. The festival, which originated in 2001 with Garvey a central founder, is named after the firebrand progressive Robert La Follette Sr., Wisconsin’s governor a century ago. “Fighting Bob” became a central point of mobilization, where Garvey spread his communications philosophy to thousands of grassroots activists drawn from across the Badger State. Over the years, the festival has attracted many of the nation’s most thoughtful progressives, including Sanders, Jim Hightower, Jesse Jackson, Wisconsin Democratic Senator Tammy Baldwin, among numerous others.

Many “Fighting Bob” attendees became active because of Garvey, who indefatigably crisscrossed the state to share his energy, strategic acumen, and legal skills with workers battling against plant closings and wage cuts, and with environmentalists resisting “factory farms” and other threats to clean water.  

Garvey’s signature method first found full expression back in 1982, when he directed the NFL players union’s campaign for a fixed share of the football league’s massive, fast-growing revenues. Under Garvey, the union developed and drove home a compelling message that motivated the players and resonated with fans. As Garvey would later recall, “We built support among the public by emphasizing, ‘We are the game’—emphasizing that while the owners were dispensable, the players are not.”

The message kept the players consistently fired up. “Once the players really understood that they truly are the game, they were well on the way to victory,” Garvey explained at the time. This consistent message enabled the NFL stars to quickly out-maneuver the league and its hardliner anti-union majority. By the strike’s end, not a single player had crossed the picket lines, the public solidly supported the union, and the owners were forced to agree to provide the players with 55 percent of revenues.

Not that Garvey’s strategy was always appreciated within the ranks of labor or by Democrats. Garvey once recounted how then–AFL-CIO President Lane Kirkland, a dour and cautious figure, told him “to avoid too much publicity. He demanded, ‘What if you lose?’”

Garvey retorted, “Well, what if we win?” With the NFL players’ strike, as with numerous local fights involving unions and environmentalists, the Garvey method paid off by combining a powerful message with grassroots activism and public outreach.

Some Wisconsin Democrats never got comfortable with Garvey. To them, openly proclaiming a progressive, anti-corporate message risked alienating the Democrats’ donor class, and galvanizing and intensifying right-wing opposition to frightening levels. In his 1986 race for the U.S. Senate seat held by arch-conservative Robert Kasten, Garvey’s surging poll numbers alarmed Kasten consigliere Roger Ailes (later of Fox News infamy) into devising a major TV ad buy that falsely accused Garvey of stealing $750,000 from the NFL union he had represented. After his narrow re-election, Kasten was shamefacedly forced to admit that there had been no basis for the charge, but the outcome was of course unchanged.

Garvey’s fierce allegiance to rank-and-file union members also caused some rifts with labor leaders across the state.

But today, under Republican Governor Scott Walker and President Trump, Wisconsin Democrats face unprecedented existential threats to labor rights, the public commons, the environment, and civil liberties. They need Ed Garvey’s full-throated progressive message of economic inequality, and his genius for communication, more than ever. This may be Garvey’s most important legacy—and what makes his loss untimely in more sense than one.

Milwaukee Riots Fed by Decades of African American Economic Insecurity

The recent unrest in Milwaukee spotlights the deindustrialization and hyper-segregation that has devastated the city’s communities of color.

AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps
AP Photo/Jeffrey Phelps Police move in on a group of protesters throwing rocks at them in Milwaukee, Sunday, August 14, 2016. T he recent outbreak of violent rioting in Milwaukee came as no surprise to anyone paying even the slightest attention to the deterioration of conditions for the city’s African Americans, especially the young. The immediate trigger for an outbreak of gunshots, rock-throwing, and the torching of six businesses was the slaying of a 23-year-old African American by an African American cop. The shooting victim, who had a record of serious crimes, was reportedly carrying a 23-shot pistol, but videotape footage taken by the officer’s “bodycam” has not yet been released, although officials contend that it vindicates the officer’s actions. The killing took place in the volatile context of the city’s “ hyper-segregation ,” intensifying poverty, and repeated police abuse. Discontent with the police escalated over the past several years with the fatal shooting in 2014 of...

Ryan Seeks to Restore GOP’s Elite-Focused Agenda

The speaker’s populist overtures will do little to bridge the gap between the GOP’s donor class and its blue-collar base.

Anthony Wahl/The Janesville Gazette via AP
Anthony Wahl/The Janesville Gazette via AP House Speaker Paul Ryan speaks inside the Armory in Janesville, Wisconsin, following his defeat of first-time candidate Paul Nehlen in Wisconsin's primary on Tuesday, August 9, 2016. D onald Trump’s blistering attacks on trade deals with Mexico and China, regardless of how simplistic and distorted , have placed House Speaker Paul Ryan in an awkward spot, in part because of his own entrenched “free-trade” beliefs—and those of the Republican donor class he has so skillfully cultivated . But Ryan’s position is most precarious because if he harbors ambitions for the 2020 Republican presidential nomination, he wants to avoid alienating the supporters of Donald Trump, whom, despite mounting criticism of his support for the New Yorker, he has continued to endorse. To balance his own fiercely held convictions on “free trade” and austerity policies with Trump’s contradictory economic direction, Ryan has been going through a remarkable set of...

Wisconsin Redistricting Lawsuit Could Reverberate Nationally

A federal lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of Wisconsin’s Republican-drawn state legislative district lines could have sweeping implications for gerrymandered districts nationwide.

AP Photo/Morry Gash, File
AP Photo/Morry Gash, File Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker speaks at a news conference in Madison. A fter a century as a trailblazer for progressive democracy reforms, Wisconsin has become what one local union leader ruefully calls “a kind of laboratory for oligarchs to implement their political and economic agenda.” This assessment, delivered by David Poklinkoski, president of International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Local 2304, captures Wisconsin Democrats’ dim view of the brazenly partisan redistricting plan masterminded by GOP Governor Scott Walker. But the redistricting plan, so central in empowering Walker and his legislative allies to roll back social reforms in Wisconsin, is now the target of a federal lawsuit. First heard by federal judges in May, the suit is now before an appeals court that is expected to rule this summer. That ruling could reverberate in other states around the country with heavily GOP-tilted electoral maps. While a few Democratic-controlled state...

Dodging Taxes Through Corporate “Inversions”

Johnson Controls is the latest in a string of American companies that save millions in taxes by moving U.S. headquarters overseas, costing Americans jobs and eroding the nation’s corporate tax base.

(Photo: AP/Kristoffer Tripplaar)
(Photo: AP/Kristoffer Tripplaar) In January, Johnson Controls announced that it would transfer its official corporate headquarters from Milwaukee, Wisconsin (above), to Cork, Ireland. I n 2014, Wisconsin-based manufacturing giant Johnson Controls rose to 66th place on the Fortune 500. The company’s soaring profits came thanks in no small part to a string of bailouts, tax breaks, and subsidies from the federal government. But in January, Johnson announced that it would merge with overseas manufacturer Tyco International and transfer its official corporate headquarters to Cork, Ireland, where Tyco is already based. Johnson called the merger a chance for both companies to leverage the emerging home products market. But the move conveniently saves the new company $150 million a year in U.S. taxes. That’s because Ireland has a corporate tax rate of 12.5 percent, while Johnson Controls paid a rate of about 19 percent in the U.S. last year. It’s a maneuver that economists have dubbed an “...

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