Amy Gutman

Recent Articles

Ian Shapiro's Democratic Justice

When all the law-abiding adult members of a society share free and equal citizenship in a fair scheme of social cooperation, they constitute a democracy. This is the ideal of democratic justice that is captured by John Rawls, the most eminent twentieth-century Anglo-American political philosopher. A society does not necessarily achieve justice merely by following majority rule. A just democracy must secure every person a set of fundamental liberties along with adequate education, health care, productive work, and income. Fundamental liberties include personal and political liberties such as freedom of conscience, speech, and association; due process under the rule of law; and equal suffrage in free and fair elections. Personal and political liberties are "co-original," as the distinguished German philosopher J├╝rgen Habermas, puts it: Both are similarly rooted in the democratic ideal of free and equal citizenship in a fair scheme of social cooperation. Nowhere, however, has this...