Health of Nations: Japan

It's Friday, I've got to run to the airport in an hour, and the shower beckons (actually, demands). But before all that -- Japan! Also, in response to popular demand, I've grouped the series into a separate "Health of Nations" category. Collect all five!

Da Basics: Japan's health insurance is another one of these employer-based systems, and has been since 1922. Universal insurance was achieved in 1961, through the National Health Insurance Act. Employers with 700+ employees are required to operate insurance plans for workers and their dependents. The plans are called "society-managed insurance". About 1800 of these employer-run plans exist, with 85% of them being single company programs and the balance being jointly administered by two or more companies. The boards of these plans are 50% company reps and 50% worker reps, much like in Germany. Dependents are required to enroll in the plans and the whole thing is funded through payroll taxes. These employer-based, "society-managed insurance" groups cover 26% of Japan's population.

Employees and dependents in companies with fewer than 700 workers are automatically enrolled in the small business national health plan operated by the government. This plan covers about 30% of Japan and is paid for by both payroll taxes and general fund revenue.

The third category of insurance is the "citizens insurance program", which covers the retired and the self-employed. The plan is administered by municipal governments who levy a compulsory premium on the self-employed in their districts. Further, the employer run health care and the government run small business system are both required to contribute to the citizens program in order to cover the retirees. The contributions from the other two programs cover about 40% of the citizens insurance program costs. Any further amount needed comes from general revenue.